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What is the purpose of your back muscles?

Your back muscles are divided into three unique layers: the superficial layer, the intermediate layer, and the deep layer. These layers of back muscles aid in the mobilization and stabilization of your trunk throughout daily activities. Additionally, they connect your shoulders and pelvis to the trunk, forming a connection between your upper and lower bodies. Do not hesitate to ask doctor if you require clarity concerning your back or if you are experiencing back pain.

The superficial layer of back muscles is located just beneath the skin and fascia. Numerous these muscles are easily identified and located by examining and palpating your body. The superficial back muscles comprise the following:

– Trapezius:

The trapezius is divided into three parts: upper, middle, and lower. From the cervical spine and skull, as well as the spinous processes of cervical levels 7–12. The flat, triangular muscle attaches to the clavicle, acromion, and scapula spine. The spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) innervates the trapezius. It helps your shoulders. The middle and lower trapezius muscles pull the shoulders backward.

– Rhomboid Major and Minor:

Your rhomboids originate from cervical 7 to thoracic 5. They attach to the scapula’s medial edge. The dorsal scapular nerve innervates the rhomboids They are to retract and stabilize your shoulder blades.

– Latissimus dorsi:

Your lats are a primary back muscle and shoulder joint mover. The thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and lower three ribs all contribute to them. The muscle joins to the upper arm bone at the shoulder. The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus. The latissimus extends and rotates the upper arm bone. They also help stabilize your low back while your arm is repaired.

The serratus posterior superior and inferior are in the intermediate layer. These muscles help your diaphragm and intercostal muscles move your ribs during breathing. The serratus posterior superior runs from cervical seven to thoracic three, to ribs two to five. The inferior serratus posterior starts at thoracic 11 and attaches at ribs 9–12. Intercostal nerves innervate both serratus posterior muscles.

The deep layer of back muscles is sometimes referred to as the intrinsic layer, as it is located closest to the spine. The deep layer is composed of the following:

Erector spinae:

Erector spinae are long strap muscles consisting of the iliocostalis, spinalis and longissimus. Scapular and supraspinous ligaments also originate from the iliac crest and sacral. They then move up your spine, inserting on your ribs, transverse processes, and skull. The posterior rami of the spinal neurons supply the erector spinae. They expand your spine and bend it backward. They act exclusively on one side to lateralize your trunk.

– Multifidus:

Your multifidus muscles originate in your sacrum, iliac spine, lumbar vertebrae, and thoracic and cervical vertebrae transverse processes. Each fiber bundle ascends two to four vertebral levels and attaches to the spinous process above. Multifidus muscles are innervated by spinal neurons’ posterior rami. Each level of the multifidus muscle is responsible for stabilizing the spinal segment it attaches to.

– Quadratus lumborum:

The quadratus lumborum, or QL, is the deepest back muscle. It originates on the iliac crest and inserts on the transverse processes of lumbar 1–5 and the lower half of the twelfth rib. The QL is innervated by the twelfth thoracic nerve and the lumbar nerves’ spinal rami. Each muscle in the deep, middle, and superficial layers is paired; on each side of your body, there is one on the left and one on the right. When you contract on one side, your QL stretches your spine laterally. When both quadratus lumborum muscles flex, your spine extends.

Understanding both anatomy and functionality of your back muscles will assist you in determining whether (and when) you may require expert medical care for a back condition.

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